What is Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN)?
Nicotinamide Mononucleotide, or NMN, is a compound naturally synthesised within the body, serving various essential physiological functions. It's instrumental in producing NAD+ (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), a vital coenzyme that participates in numerous biological processes. NMN stands as one of the most significant precursors to NAD+, holding a central role in cellular energy production and regulation (1).
Benefits of NMN
Nicotinamide mononucleotide has aroused considerable interest among researchers for its extensive health benefits. Although the body can generate adequate amounts of NAD+ and NMN, often, these levels aren't sufficient for optimum energy levels. Therefore, it becomes essential to regulate the required levels of NAD+ through oral supplements. NMN supplementation provides the following benefits (2):
• Energy Metabolism:
Energy production at the cellular level demands specific precursors in the form of compounds. NMN, a prime component of NAD+, is essential in this regard. By elevating NAD+ levels, NMN helps improve energy levels and vitality, ensuring optimum NAD+ synthesis to meet the body's energy demands. Regular consumption of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide guarantees that all cellular and bodily functions operate efficiently.
• DNA Repair:
NMN plays a crucial role in maintaining and repairing DNA and controlling its functions. DNA damage is inevitable in the body, leading to mutations and loss of genetic material, resulting in faulty protein synthesis. NAD+ ensures DNA integrity and vitality, preventing wear and tear (3). Our cells' DNA is subject to damage from environmental toxins, radiation, and normal cellular functions. Left unchecked, this damage can cause mutations and health risks. NAD+ serves as a cofactor for essential enzymes involved in DNA repair. With ample NAD+ through NMN supplementation, the activity of DNA repair enzymes is heightened, ensuring efficient DNA repair and genomic stability.
• Gene Expression:
NAD+ plays a role in gene expression, affecting cellular functions. An essential enzyme in this aspect is the sirtuin family, proteins that remove acetyl groups from histone proteins packaging DNA. These sirtuins can silence or activate specific genes, impacting various cellular functions like metabolism, stress responses, and DNA repair. Nicotinamide Mononucleotide also regulates histone proteins around DNA, ensuring gene accessibility for transcription into proteins (4). Proper gene expression balance is vital, and faulty expression has been linked to diseases like cancer. NAD+ and sirtuins are crucial for proper gene expression, contributing to overall well-being.
• Cellular Stress Responses:
Nicotinamide Mononucleotide helps augment cellular stress response, aiding in coping with internal and external stressors. This means a combination of protective mechanisms to deal with challenges like oxidative stress and inflammation. Activation of these mechanisms initiates repair processes and restores physiological functions. NAD+ is engaged in stress responses through enzymes like sirtuins and PARPs, regulating proteins involved in stress signalling. They influence cellular functions in response to stressors, and PARPs play a role in DNA damage response, allowing the cell to recover and avert further damage.
NMN vs. NR
NMN (Nicotinamide Mononucleotide) and NR (Nicotinamide Riboside) are the two foremost precursors of NAD+ commonly utilized in supplements. Both have the capacity to enhance NAD+ production, but they diverge in their efficacy and mechanism of action. NMN is directly transformed into the NAD+ compound without an intermediate stage. In contrast, Nicotinamide Riboside is initially converted into NMN and subsequently into NAD+, the final compound used in energy synthesis pathways. While both are effective in boosting NAD+, NMN is considered more efficient as it directly converts to the active NAD+ form. Research indicates that NMN may be superior in elevating NAD+ levels compared to NR.
Potential Benefits of NAD
NAD+ is rich with potential health advantages. As a fundamental component in cellular metabolic processes, it offers the following benefits to the body:
• Slows Down Aging Process:
Studies indicate that NAD+ may contribute to longevity and aging. Clinical trials have confirmed that increased NAD+ levels may decelerate aging (1).
• Improves Cognition:
NAD+ plays a vital role in sustaining brain health and cognitive functions. Sufficient levels of NAD+ may safeguard against neurodegenerative diseases.
• Protects Heart Health:
NAD+ supports cardiovascular health by fostering healthy blood vessel function and curtailing inflammation.
• Helps with Jet Lag:
NAD+ regulates the body's circadian rhythms, and some research suggests it might assist in mitigating jet lag symptoms.
• Supports Muscle Health:
NAD+ can bolster mitochondrial function within muscles, aiding in the enhancement of muscle health and functionality as we age.
Benefits of Taking an NMN Supplement
Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN), the direct precursor of NAD+, is thought to offer many health advantages. Here's a look at some of the key benefits:
• Does NMN Supplementation Work?
NMN has been introduced into the supplement market following numerous quality and efficacy trials. Clinical research demonstrates that NMN assists in enhancing overall health and metabolic functions. Various quality and quantity assessments are conducted prior to its inclusion in supplements.
• Can it Help with Aging?
NMN has the capacity to augment metabolic reactions and facilitate the elimination of toxins from the body. Enhanced bodily functions coupled with the removal of oxidative radicals contribute to organ health, subsequently slowing down the aging process.
How Can I Increase My NMN Naturally?
While oral supplements remain an effective way to sustain healthy NAD+ levels, natural NAD+ boosting through lifestyle changes is also possible. Here are some strategies to elevate NMN levels:
• Balanced Diet:
Consuming foods abundant in NAD+ precursors, such as dairy products, fish, meat, nuts, and green vegetables, provides natural NMN sources.
• Caloric Restriction:
Fasting and occasional caloric restriction have been found to elevate NAD+ levels.
• Regular Exercise:
Consistent physical activity can contribute to NAD+ enhancement by optimizing metabolic rate and overall well-being.
Is NMN Safe, and Does it Have Side Effects?
NMN is considered safe and typically doesn't pose a risk to health. Research indicates that even high doses of NMN do not result in harmful effects. Various safety trials reaffirm NMN's safety and effectiveness, though some individuals may experience minor digestive discomfort (5).
Where to Buy NMN in Australia
Bodytonix is a destination for Australians seeking top-quality vitamins, supplements, and tonics. Selecting a reputable source is crucial; look for 3rd party verified supplements to ensure safety. The Bodytonix team is committed to enhancing health with these powerful NMN supplements.
The suitable dosage of NMN may vary based on individual health conditions and objectives. The generally recommended dose is one capsule daily, with or without food. Consulting a healthcare provider for personalized guidance is advised if you have a specific medical condition.
Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) is an exciting supplement supporting diverse health areas such as DNA repair, gene expression, energy metabolism, and cellular stress response. With the growing popularity of NMN supplements as a natural precursor to NAD+, caution and professional consultation are vital if you have underlying health concerns.
1. Nadeeshani H, Li J, Ying T, Zhang B, Lu J. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) as an anti-aging health product – Promises and safety concerns. J Adv Res. 2022;37:267. doi:10.1016/J.JARE.2021.08.003
2. Shade C. The Science Behind NMN–A Stable, Reliable NAD+ Activator and Anti-Aging Molecule. Integr Med A Clin J. 2020;19(1):12. Accessed April 6, 2023. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238909/
3. Kiss T, Giles CB, Tarantini S, et al. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) supplementation promotes anti-aging miRNA expression profile in the aorta of aged mice, predicting epigenetic rejuvenation and anti-atherogenic effects. GeroScience. 2019;41(4):419. doi:10.1007/S11357-019-00095-X
4. Ruszkiewicz JA, Bürkle A, Mangerich A. Fueling genome maintenance: On the versatile roles of NAD+ in preserving DNA integrity. J Biol Chem. 2022;298(6). doi:10.1016/J.JBC.2022.102037
5. Fukamizu Y, Uchida Y, Shigekawa A, Sato T, Kosaka H, Sakurai T. Safety evaluation of β-nicotinamide mononucleotide oral administration in healthy adult men and women. Sci Rep. 2022;12(1):14442. doi:10.1038/S41598-022-18272-Y